Irish Air Corps Toxic Chemical List Updated

We are curently updating our chemical listings. There were and are a very large number of chemical substances in use in the Irish Air Corps and amost all of these substances have ingredient chemicals.

For example, the corrosion inhibiter Mastinox 6856k, which many personnel used without any PPE,  contains the below constituent chemicals. Among the ingredients include carcinogens, mutagens, immune sensitisers, irritants and just plain old toxic chemicals.

  • Strontium Chromate
  • Barium Chromate
  • Xylene
  • Toluene
  • Ethylbenzene

By following the links below you will arrive at tables showing the individual chemical names that we have extracted from some MSDS. Due to a recent Supreme Court ruling the list of chemicals is expected to grow. It is our intention to eventually create a database that links the MSDS to the individual constituents.

Bear the following in mind when using the table.
  • You can limit the number of entries you want to see
  • You can search for names such as “Tolouene” or “chromate”
  • You can sort by name, carcinogen, mutagen, reprotoxic etc.
  • Clicking on the name will take you to the Wikipedia page for that chemical
  • Clicking on the ECHA link for a chemical will take you to the European Chemicals Agency where you can look at the hazards in detail and view CAS number etc.
  • The tables do SCROLL sideways, the scroll bar is at the bottom of each table.

Chemicals – Aircraft Maintenance

Chemicals – Photo Section

Delay – Deny – Die

Irish Air Corps Health & Safety officer ordered evidence of Carbon Monoxide risks destroyed.

In 1995 the Irish Air Corps commissioned an independent third party organisation to carry out air quality testing in the Engine Repair Flight building. ERF comprised the Engine Overhaul facility, the Non Destructive Testing workshop and the Machine shop. Avionics Squadron was located in the same physical building as the ERF and the open attic spaces meant  chemical vapours & fumes from either unit were free to flow in either direction.

The Avionics / ERF building was also less than 20m downwind from the 3m high Spray Paint Shop exhaust stack which exhausted benzene, hexamethylene diisocyanate, toluene and xylene.

Ambient Air Monitoring for Health & Safety at Work Report from the 2nd of August 1995 found that #Dichloromethane (also known as Methylene chloride) was found in some areas to be 175ppm. At the time The most stringent health and safety limits for #DCM were 50 ppm (TWA for 8 hours) and 126 ppm (STEL for 15 minutes).

Personnel, including other ranks employed in the Formation Safety Office, were never informed of these results. Avionics / ERF personnel were left in situ for a further 12 years before the workshops were finally condemned & demolished and needlessly exposed to #DCM and other chemicals.

Significantly Dichloromethane metabolises as Carbon Monoxide once inhaled but is lethal in many other different ways.  We have at least 10 untimely deaths of men who worked in this building alone, their average age of death was 49.3 years and the youngest was only 32.

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So we have one state body warning the general public about the dangers of Carbon Monoxide, while another state body hid evidence of a known carbon monoxide threat from personnel working in a heavily contaminated facility.

Delay – Deny – Die

Samsung toxic chemical scandal Versus Irish Air Corps toxic chemical scandal

Samsung has apologised to employees who developed cancer at one of its computer chip manufacturing facilities following a ten-year legal battle.

The announcement comes after the company and a group representing ailing Samsung workers agreed to accept compensation terms and end a highly-publicised standoff. The company’s apology was part of the settlement.

Kim Ki-nam, the head of Samsung’s semiconductor business, said: “We sincerely apologise to the workers who suffered from illness and their families. We have failed to properly manage health risks at our semiconductor and LCD factories.”

Campaigners claim that 320 employees at Samsung have developed illnesses after being exposed to toxic chemicals at in its chip factories. They also claim that 118 people died as a result.

Read more on the Telegraph UK

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Here is a list of some of the chemicals used by Samsung and surprise, surprise all of them bar one were used by the Irish Air Corps in different hangars, labs & workshops at Baldonnel & Gormanston aerodromes.

In fact Trichloroethane was so “borrowed” by other units that almost every location at Baldonnel would send personnel up to the Engine Shop to  obtain some TRIKE in plastic Coca Cola bottles, milk cartons, aerosol lids or any other vessel capable of begging some of the liquid. Trike was used to clean, degrease or even just remove black marks off floors. 

This last usage meant that on at least 2 occasions floors in the Air Corps Training Depot were actually disolved in separate incidents years appart. One where old fashioned lino was dissolved back to the backing twine and another years later were a lecture room was mopped with a 25 litre drum of Trike that resulted in the vinyl floor tiles shrinking & curling up and the wall paint disolving & flowing off the walls onto the floor. 

ChemicalUsed By SamsungUsed By Air Corps
Trichloroethylene
aka TCE aka Trike
YesYes
DichromatesYesYes
DimethylacetamideYesYes
Thinners (containing Benzene, Toluene, Xylene).YesYes
Arsine YesNo
Sulphuric AcidYesYes
ResponseKim Ki-nam, the head of Samsung’s semiconductor business, said: "We sincerely apologise to the workers who suffered from illness and their families. We have failed to properly manage health risks at our semiconductor and LCD factories.”You were not exposed to toxic chemicals.
If you were exposed to toxic chemicals you should have worn the PPE provided.
You should have relied upon the Chemical Training provided.
You should have used common sense.

Note that the “independent third party” investigator, Christopher O’Toole, is a retired barrister from the office of the Attorney General (an office incidentally being sued by exposed personnel..so much for third party independence). O’Toole could find no documentation to back up the Air Corps / State Claims Agency claim that PPE was provided nor that Chemical Training was provided….simply because it WASNT…not until 2017 a full 2 years after the whistleblower’s protected disclosures.

Furthermore O’Toole DID NOT investigate ILLNESS, O’Toole DID NOT investigate CHEMICAL EXPOSURE. O’Toole only really investigated whether documentation to prove Air Corps compliance with Health & Safety legislation existed prior to 2015 and he could find NONE.

My expertise is in the area of law and in carrying out this review it was my intention to examine compliance by the Air Corps with the relevant law and regulation. I was not in a position to consider the substances in use or any implications for human health arising from such use as these issues are outside my competence. The allegations concern both the current health and safety regime and compliance with that regime in a period stretching back over 20 years.

Delay – Deny – Die

Multiple Chemical Sensitivities can drive sufferers into poverty as well as ill health

Consider the trappings of modern life: Calvin Klein Eternity, gasoline, Gore-Tex, hairspray, paint, particle board, polyurethane iPod cases.

Now imagine that you’re allergic to virtually all of them.

Environmentalists usually think about chemical toxicity as either a dramatic local crisis (Bhopal, Love Canal) or the simmering concern of those far away (breast-feeding mothers in the Arctic) or far in the future (our oft-evoked grandchildren). But for people suffering from Multiple Chemical Sensitivities, the chemical crisis is already here. Indeed, thanks to industrialisation, it is already everywhere. And, like so many environment-related health issues, it disproportionately affects the poor and, moreover, drives many once financially stable people into poverty.

As a disease, Multiple Chemical Sensitivities doesn’t have an official case definition yet (more on this soon), but rather refers to a broad range of adverse symptoms brought on by an even more broad array of everyday chemicals. These symptoms are often provoked at exposure levels far below those that seem to affect the rest of the population — levels virtually always present in our homes, workplaces, and social venues. They commonly include severe headaches, food intolerance, difficulty breathing, nausea, irritation of the eyes, ears, nose, throat, and skin, and disorientation or confusion, but there are many more.

Current theories range from a genetic predisposition to chemical injury, to neurological damage, to abnormalities in detoxifying enzymes, to a so-called “toxicant-induced loss of tolerance” to environmental stressors, in which one particular exposure to a toxic substance overwhelms a person’s system and leaves them unable to cope with exposures to a wide range of other toxins.

It can be even more difficult finding an MCS-safe job. Even if a workplace itself is a tolerable environment (rare, given the ubiquity of toxic building materials), basic job-related interactions with the general public can be impossible. “The way a typical story goes,” says Zwillinger, “is that people lose the ability to make a living because they can’t be out in the public arena” without getting ill. Some MCS patients find a way to work from home (assuming they’ve found safe housing) — but that option is seldom available to poorer Americans forced to rely on low-wage, low-skill jobs.

It’s a bitter irony, since many with MCS see themselves as canaries in the modern-day coal mine. As recently as 1986, the exquisitely sensitive yellow birds were used to detect the presence of dangerous gases in mine shafts, and when they showed signs of illness — when they ceased to sing — it was an unambiguous warning: evacuate.

As growing numbers of MCS sufferers are driven from their homes and jobs, pushed to the fringes of medical science and the brink of financial ruin, made sick by industrialised civilisation itself, we would do well to heed their equally urgent warning. And fast, because this time around we can’t evacuate. There’s nowhere else to go.

Read the full article on Grist

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Air Corps Chemical Abuse Survivors are the canary in the coalmine for inflammatory illness being caused by ubiquitous chemical exposure in our home, work, vehicles, food & clothing. 

The appalling high concentration chemical exposure suffered by Air Corps personnel caused chemical related illnesses in young fit men & women in a very short space of time making us a very valuable cluster for medicine & science to study.

Study us, fix us and there will be a public health dividend. 

Epigenetic Harm and the Irish Army Air Corps

Epigenetics is the study of heritable phenotype changes that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. The Greek prefix epi- (ἐπι- “over, outside of, around”) in epigenetics implies features that are “on top of” or “in addition to” the traditional genetic basis for inheritance. Epigenetics most often denotes changes that affect gene activity and expression, but can also be used to describe any heritable phenotypic change. Such effects on cellular and physiological phenotypic traits may result from external or environmental factors, or be part of normal developmental program. The standard definition of epigenetics requires these alterations to be heritable, either in the progeny of cells or of organisms.

The term also refers to the changes themselves: functionally relevant changes to the genome that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence. Examples of mechanisms that produce such changes are DNA methylation and histone modification, each of which alters how genes are expressed without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Gene expression can be controlled through the action of repressor proteins that attach to silencer regions of the DNA.

These epigenetic changes may last through cell divisions for the duration of the cell’s life, and may also last for multiple generations even though they do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism; instead, non-genetic factors cause the organism’s genes to behave (or “express themselves”) differently.

Read the full article on Wikipedia

University of Limerick students exposed to Irish Air Corp toxic chemicals over decades

The University of Limerick sent 3 engineering students a year, from about 1990 to 2008, for work experience at the Irish Air Corps at Casement Aerodrome, Baldonnel.

During their work experience all the UL students were  exposed to a range of CMR chemicals in an unprotected manner and at levels known by the Air Corps to be over airborne health and safety limits.

To date the University of Limerick have refused to alert their former students to the fact that they were overexposed to toxic chemicals including Trichloroethylene, Trichloroethane, Dichloromethane, Hexamethylene Diisocyanate, Toluene, Xylene, Benzene, Hexavalent Chromium and many more.

Like their military counterparts that served during the same time period some of the UL students have been injured by their time serving in the Irish Air Corps. They all need to be informed of their exposure so that those suffering can receive appropriate medical help.

The actions of the University of Limerick on this issue to date have been shameful.

http://www.thejournal.ie/college-guide-ul-4181613-Aug2018/

Study of Health Outcomes in Aircraft Maintenance Personnel (SHOAMP)

A research team from the University of Newcastle (Australia) has completed an investigation into whether there is an association between adverse health and an involvement in F-111 fuel tank deseal/reseal activities and, if so, the nature and strength of that association.

The current health status of those workers was compared with the health of groups of workers with similar backgrounds from Amberley and Richmond air bases.

Yield of literature review

Associations between exposure and health outcomes
  • Cancer
  • Multiple Sclerosis, Motor Neurone Disease and Other Neurological Examinations
  • Other Neurological Outcomes
  • Neuropsychology
  • Reproductive Health Effects
  • Other health effects
  • Health and the Manufacture and Maintenance of Aircraft
Measurement of exposure and outcomes
  • Bio-markers
  • Measurement of Neuropsychological Deficits
Summary of Results and Implications for General Health and Medical Study
  • Cancer
  • Multiple Sclerosis, Motor Neurone Disease and other Neurological Effects
  • Birth Defects
  • Neuropsychology
  • Other Health Effects
  • Biomarkers

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.468.8401&rep=rep1&type=pdf

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When the RAAF and the Australian Government discovered there was a chemical exposure problem and associated health problems amongst aircraft maintenance personnel they initiated some health studies one of which became known as SHOAMP. These studies are ongoing and report every 4 years to the best of our knowledge.

Australia does have a Department of Veteran Affairs and operates schemes whereby medical & financial support are in place to support RAAF personnel affected by the F1-11 Deseal / Reseal program.

These schemes are far from perfect and are a cause of ongoing stress amongst Australian survivors but obviously preferable to Ireland where Irish Air Corps sick personnel have to risk their home to take the the state to court while our compassionate medically qualified Taoiseach (Prime Minister) Leo Varadkar recently refused medical help for Air Corps personnel in the Irish parliament and goaded sick survivors to sue.

Any person who served in the Irish Army Air Corps needs to read the above document which is the 2003 SHOAMP report. Unfortunately many links on the Australian DVA website are down. As we find newer SHOAMP reports we will make them available. 

Epichlorohydrin – Guide to Hazardous Air Pollutants used by the Irish Air Corps

Epichlorohydrin
(1-Chloro-2,3-Epoxypropane)

CAS  106-89-8

Hazard Summary

Epichlorohydrin is mainly used in the production of epoxy resins.  Acute (short-term) inhalation exposure to epichlorohydrin in the workplace has caused irritation to the eyes, respiratory tract, and skin of workers.

At high levels of exposure, nausea, vomiting, cough, labored breathing, inflammation of the lung, pulmonary edema, and renal lesions may be observed in humans.

Chronic (long-term) occupational exposure of humans to epichlorohydrin in air is associated with high levels of respiratory tract illness and hematological effects.

Damage to the nasal passages, respiratory tract and kidneys have been observed in rodents exposed to epichlorohydrin by inhalation for acute or chronic duration.  An increased incidence of tumors of the nasal cavity has been observed in rats exposed by inhalation. EPA has classified epichlorohydrin as a Group B2, probable human carcinogen.

Please Note: The main sources of information for this fact sheet are EPA's IRIS (2), which contains information on inhalation chronic toxicity and carcinogenic effects of epichlorohydrin and the RfC, and unit cancer risk estimate for inhalation exposure, and the Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Epichlorohydrin. (1)

Uses

  • The primary use of epichlorohydrin is in the production of epoxy resins used in coatings, adhesives, and plastics. (1,5)
  • Epichlorohydrin is also used in the manufacture of synthetic glycerine, textiles, paper, inks and dyes, solvents, surfactants, and pharmaceuticals. (1)
  • Epichlorohydrin is also listed as an inert ingredient in commercial pesticides. (1)

Sources and Potential Exposure

  • Individuals are most likely to be exposed to epichlorohydrin in the workplace. (1)
  • Epichlorohydrin may be released to the ambient air during its production and use. (1)
  • Accidental releases to waterways may expose the general public to epichlorohydrin. (1)

Assessing Personal Exposure

  • No information was located concerning the measurement of personal exposure to epichlorohydrin.

Health Hazard Information

Acute Effects:

  • Acute inhalation exposure to epichlorohydrin in the workplace has caused irritation to the eyes, respiratory tract, and skin of workers.  At high levels of exposure, nausea, vomiting, cough, labored breathing, chemical pneumonitis (inflammation of the lung), pulmonary edema, and renal lesions may be observed in humans. (1,2)
  • Dermal contact with epichlorohydrin may result in irritation and burns of the skin in humans and animals.(1)
  • In rats and mice acutely exposed to epichlorohydrin by inhalation, nasal and lower respiratory tract irritation and lesions, hemorrhage, and severe edema have been observed.  Renal degeneration and CNS depression with paralysis of respiration and cardiac arrest have also resulted from acute inhalation exposure in animals. (1-3)
  • Tests involving acute exposure of rats, mice and rabbits have demonstrated epichlorohydrin to have high acute toxicity from inhalation, oral, and dermal exposure. (4)

Chronic Effects (Noncancer):

  • Chronic occupational exposure of humans to epichlorohydrin in air is associated with high levels of respiratory tract illness and hematological effects (decreased hemoglobin concentration and decreased erythrocyte and leukocyte counts). (1,5)
  • Chronic inhalation exposure has been observed to cause pulmonary effects including inflammation and degenerative changes in the nasal epithelia, severe lung congestion, and pneumonia in rats and mice. Effects to the kidneys were also observed. (1,2)
  • Hepatic damage, hematological effects, myocardial changes, and damage to the CNS have been reported in chronically exposed rats. (1,5)
  • The Reference Concentration (RfC) for epichlorohydrin is 0.001 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) basedon changes in the nasal turbinates in rats and mice. The RfC is an estimate (with uncertainty spanningperhaps an order of magnitude) of a continuous inhalation exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups), that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious noncancer effects during a lifetime. It is not a direct estimator of risk but rather a reference point to gauge the potential effects. At exposures increasingly greater than the RfC, the potential for adverse health effects increases. Lifetime exposure above the RfC does not imply that an adverse health effect would necessarily occur. (2)
  • EPA has medium confidence in the study on which the RfC was based because of the inflammation in the respiratory tract of control and exposed animals although it was well conducted and contained detailed histopathological examinations of numerous tissues including the respiratory tract; medium confidence in the database because chronic studies that adequately address the respiratory system and a two-generation reproductive study are lacking and the only chronic inhalation study is confounded by severe nasal inflammation in the controls; and, consequently, medium confidence in the RfC. (2)
  • The provisional Reference Dose (RfD) for epichlorohydrin is 0.002 milligrams per kilogram body weight per day (mg/kg/d) based on kidney effects in rats. The provisional RfD is a value that has had some form of Agency review, but it does not appear on IRIS (6)

Reproductive/Developmental Effects:

  • In humans occupationally exposed to epichlorohydrin, effects on sperm counts, hormone levels, and fertility have been not detected. (1,2)
  • Epichlorohydrin has been demonstrated to reduce fertility in male rats when inhaled or administered orally.(1-3)
  • Teratogenic effects (birth defects) have not been observed in studies of rodents exposed by inhalation or ingestion. (1,2,5)

Cancer Risk:

  • An increased incidence of lung cancer mortality (not statistically significant) was reported in one study of workers exposed to epichlorohydrin. (1,2)
  • An increased incidence of tumors of the nasal cavity has been observed in rats exposed to epichlorohydrin by inhalation. (1,2,5)
  • An increased incidence of forestomach tumors has been reported in rats exposed via gavage (experimentally placing the chemical in the stomach) and in drinking water.  Mice have exhibited local tumors when exposed by subcutaneous injection. (1-3,5)
  • EPA has classified epichlorohydrin as a Group B2, probable human carcinogen. (2)
  • EPA uses mathematical models, based on human and animal studies, to estimate the probability of a EPA uses mathematical models, based on human and animal studies, to estimate the probability of a person developing cancer from breathing air containing a specified concentration of a chemical. EPA calculated an inhalation unit risk estimate of 1.2 × 10-6  (µg/m3)-1. EPA estimates that, if an individual were to continuously breathe air containing epichlorohydrin at an average of 0.8 µg/m3 (0.0008 mg/m3) over hisor her entire lifetime, that person would theoretically have no more than a one-in-a-million increasedchance of developing cancer as a direct result of breathing air containing this chemical. Similarly, EPA estimates that breathing air containing 8.0 µg/m3 (0.008 mg/m3) would result in not greater than a one in-a-hundred thousand increased chance of developing cancer, and air containing 80.0 µg/m3 (0.08mg/m3) would result in not greater than a one-in-ten thousand increased chance of developing cancer. Fora detailed discussion of confidence in the potency estimates, please see IRIS. (2)
  • EPA has calculated an oral cancer slope factor of 9.9 x 10-3 (mg/kg/d)-1. (2)

Physical Properties

  • The chemical formula for epichlorohydrin is C3H5OCl, and its molecular weight is 92.53 g/mol. (1,7)
  • Epichlorohydrin is a volatile and flammable clear liquid at room temperature and is insoluble in water.(1,2,7)
  • The threshold for odor perception of epichlorohydrin is 0.93 parts per million (ppm). Epichlorohydrin has a pungent, garlicky, sweet odor. (2,8) The vapor pressure for epichlorohydrin is 22 mm Hg at 30 °C. (1)

Read the full EPA (USA) PDF on the above Hazardous Air Pollutant with references below.

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Relavance to personnel who served in the Air Corps

  • Epichlorohydrin is a component of PR1829b windshield canopy sealant.

There are possibly more chemicals used by the Air Corps that contain Epichlorohydrin. If you know of some let us know in the comments section. 

Bilateral Vestibular Dysfunction Associated With Chronic Exposure to Military Jet Fuel

Abstract

We describe three patients diagnosed with bilateral vestibular dysfunction associated with the jet propellant type-eight (JP-8) fuel exposure. Chronic exposure to aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, which are the main constituents of JP-8 military aircraft jet fuel, occurred over 3–5 years’ duration while working on or near the flight line.

Exposure to toxic hydrocarbons was substantiated by the presence of JP-8 metabolite n-hexane in the blood of one of the cases. The presenting symptoms were dizziness, headache, fatigue, and imbalance. Rotational chair testing confirmed bilateral vestibular dysfunction in all the three patients. Vestibular function improved over time once the exposure was removed.

Bilateral vestibular dysfunction has been associated with hydrocarbon exposure in humans, but only recently has emphasis been placed specifically on the detrimental effects of JP-8 jet fuel and its numerous hydrocarbon constituents. Data are limited on the mechanism of JP-8-induced vestibular dysfunction or ototoxicity.

Early recognition of JP-8 toxicity risk, cessation of exposure, and customized vestibular therapy offer the best chance for improved balance. Bilateral vestibular impairment is under-recognized in those chronically exposed to all forms of jet fuel.

CASE REPORTS

Case 1: Military Flight Refueler

A37-year-old woman presented with several years of progressively worsening continuous dizziness, headache, and fatigue. The dizziness consisted of sensations of spinning, tilting, disequilibrium, and head fullness. She did not report tinnitus or hearing loss. She was employed as a military flight refueler and exposed to JP-8 vapors and exhaust while working full-time on and around a KC-135E tanker aircraft, a plane used for performing in-flight refueling missions. She worked in a large enclosed hangar that housed all but the tail section of the tanker aircraft. During inspection and maintenance of the aircraft, up to 9,750 gallons of fuel would be loaded. Jet fuel vapors were always present in the hangar due to venting, small leaks, and fuel residue. Fuel vapor concentrations were even greater when engine maintenance necessitated removal of fuel filters and fuel components, draining of fuel into buckets, and opening of fuel lines. She worked in engine maintenance with over 4 years of inhalational and dermal exposure to JP-4 and JP-8.

Her examination showed moderately impaired equilibrium to walk only three steps in tandem before taking a sidestep. Romberg testing revealed more sway during eye closure but no falling. Her medical and neurological examinations were normal. There was no spontaneous, gaze, or positional nystagmus. Qualitative head impulse test was not performed at that time.
Cases 2 and 3

The following two patients were employees in a small purchasing warehouse, located 75 feet south of the fight path, which was separated from the blast and heat emissions from jet aircraft engines by a metal-coated and chain-link fence. Neither air conditioning vents nor carpet had not been cleaned or replaced for over a decade. On inspection, the vents were found to be mal-functioning such that air was able to enter the building but unable to escape. Subsequent inspection by the U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) confirmed poor ventilation evidenced by carbon dioxide concentrations >1,500ppm (nor-mal <1,000 ppm according to the U.S. Department of Labor). Hydrocarbons discovered in the carpet via an independent analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry included undecane (C11), dodecane (C12), tridecane (C13), tetradecane (C14), and toluene (C8)—all known JP-8 constituents (2). The chemicals present in the office carpet likely reflected poor indoor air quality. Vapor, aerosol, dermal, and eye absorption of JP-8 are presumed.

Case 2: Warehouse Employe 1

A 45-year-old female contracting officer for the National Guard reported several years of imbalance, headache, fatigue, eye and skin irritation, coughing, sinus congestion, recurrent urinary tract infections, chest tightness, irritability, depression, shortness of breath, palpitations, and numbness. She described her dizziness as an intermittent floating and a rightward tilting sensation with imbalance lasting minutes to hours without any particular pattern. She had a history of asthma and allergies including reaction to aspirin causing urticaria and airway obstruction. In 1998, she developed syncope and dizziness though no specific cause was found. She started working in the building in 1994 and worked there full-time for 5 years.

Case 3: Warehouse Employe 2

A 54-year-old female National Guard contract specialist presented with 2 years of intermittent dizziness, blurred vision, and occasional palpitations. Dizziness was experienced at least 3 days a week. She reported intermittent problems with erratic heart beats, cough, sneezing, headaches, fatigue, recurrent sinus infections, upper respiratory tract, and bladder infections. She worked in the purchasing warehouse full-time for 3 years. When away from the workplace her symptoms were improved. After moving with her colleagues into a new building, the frequency of dizziness was lessened.

Human Exposure and Absorption of Jet Fuel

Military duties such as fuel transportation, aircraft fueling and defueling, aircraft maintenance, cold aircraft engine starts, maintenance of equipment and machinery, use of tent heaters, and cleaning or degreasing with fuel may result in jet fuel exposure. Fuel handlers, mechanics, flight line personnel, especially crew chiefs, and even incidental workers remain at risk for developing illness secondary to chronic JP-8 fuel exposure in aerosol, vapor or liquid form. JP-8 is one of the most common occupational chemical exposures in the US military (1).

The Air Force has set recommended exposure limits for JP-8 at 63ppm (447mg/m3 as an 8-h time-weighted average) (22).In addition to exposure by JP-8 vapor inhalation, toxicity may also occur by absorption through the skin, which is proportional to the amount of skin exposed and the duration of exposure (23, 24). In addition to the standard operating procedure and safety guidelines, double gloving, immediate onsite laundering of contaminated/soiled jumpsuits, regular washing of safety goggles and masks, reduced foam handling time, smoking cessation, adequate cross ventilation, and frequent shift breaks may reduce the overall risk of JP-8 induced illness

At this time, OSHA has not determined a legal limit for jet fuels in workroom air. The U.S. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health set a recommended limit of 100mg/m3 for kerosene in air averaged over a 10-h work day. Multi-organ toxicity has been documented from JP-8 exposure in animal experiments over the past 15 years. More recently, toxicology researchers are investigating the adverse tissue effects of JP-8 jet fuel in concentrations well below permissible exposure limits.

Ultimately, the new data may help us to better understand the emerging genetic, metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms underpinning JP-8 cellular toxicity—including auditory and vestibular toxicity—and lead to a reassessment of the safe JP-8 exposure limits (25, 26).

CONCLUSION

Bilateral vestibular dysfunction in these three patients with prolonged vapor and dermal JP-8 fuel exposure should raise awareness in people with occupations that expose them to jet fuels, liquid hydrocarbons, or organic solvents. Dizziness and mild imbalance may be the main initial symptoms. Early recognition and limiting further exposure as well as treatment with vestibular therapy (32) may improve their function and quality of life


Bilateral Vestibular Dysfunction… (PDF Download Available)
. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325175906_Bilateral_Vestibular_Dysfunction_Associated_With_Chronic_Exposure_to_Military_Jet_Propellant_Type-Eight_Jet_Fuel

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Difference between Jet A1 & JP-8

Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. It is colorless to straw-colored in appearance. The most commonly used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1, which are produced to a standardized international specification. The only other jet fuel commonly used in civilian turbine-engine powered aviation is Jet B, which is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance.

Jet fuel is a mixture of a large number of different hydrocarbons. The range of their sizes (molecular weights or carbon numbers) is defined by the requirements for the product, such as the freezing or smoke point. Kerosene-type jet fuel (including Jet A and Jet A-1) has a carbon number distribution between about 8 and 16 (carbon atoms per molecule); wide-cut or naphtha-type jet fuel (including Jet B), between about 5 and 15.[1]

Additives

The DEF STAN 91-91 (UK) and ASTM D1655 (international) specifications allow for certain additives to be added to jet fuel, including:[13][14]

  • Antioxidants to prevent gumming, usually based on alkylated phenols, e.g., AO-30, AO-31, or AO-37; 
  • Antistatic agents, to dissipate static electricity and prevent sparking; Stadis 450, with dinonylnaphthylsulfonic acid (DINNSA) as a component, is an example
  • Corrosion inhibitors, e.g., DCI-4A used for civilian and military fuels, and DCI-6A used for military fuels;
  • Fuel system icing inhibitor (FSII) agents, e.g., Di-EGME; FSII is often mixed at the point-of-sale so that users with heated fuel lines do not have to pay the extra expense.
  • Biocides are to remediate microbial (i.e., bacterial and fungal) growth present in aircraft fuel systems. Currently, two biocides are approved for use by most aircraft and turbine engine original equipment manufacturers (OEMs); Kathon FP1.5 Microbiocide and Biobor JF.[15]
  • Metal deactivator can be added to remediate the deleterious effects of trace metals on the thermal stability of the fuel. The one allowable additive is N,N’-disalicylidene 1,2-propanediamine.

As the aviation industry’s jet kerosene demands have increased to more than 5% of all refined products derived from crude, it has been necessary for the refiner to optimize the yield of jet kerosene, a high value product, by varying process techniques. New processes have allowed flexibility in the choice of crudes, the use of coal tar sands as a source of molecules and the manufacture of synthetic blend stocks. Due to the number and severity of the processes used, it is often necessary and sometimes mandatory to use additives. These additives may, for example, prevent the formation of harmful chemical species or improve a property of a fuel to prevent further engine wear.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jet_fuel

JP-8, or JP8 (for “Jet Propellant 8”) is a jet fuel, specified and used widely by the US military. It is specified by MIL-DTL-83133 and British Defence Standard 91-87, and similar to commercial aviation’s Jet A-1, but with the addition of corrosion inhibitor and anti-icing additives.

A kerosene-based fuel, JP-8 is projected to remain in use at least until 2025. It was first introduced at NATO bases in 1978. Its NATO code is F-34.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JP-8